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20141120 - Joe Tocco - Modifying a Meade LightBridge Telescope
 
55:44
At our Macomb meeting on November 20th, Joseph Tocco will give a presentation entitled, “Light Bridge Modifications”. Joe says that any 16" telescope is a lot to contend with and if you're going to transport it then it requires a vehicle matched to the task. But what if you don't have that vehicle? What if your only transport is a modest sized sedan? Follow a journey of inspiration, creativity, and craftsmanship born from necessity. Follow Joe as he shoehorns his beloved light-bucket into a family sedan with room for all his accessories - but nothing else! Joseph has been an active member of the Warren Astronomical Society since the summer of 2011 and is also an active member of the Seven Ponds Astronomy Club. As a young teen he was also an active member of the Warren club and remembers the mentoring that he received from many past club members. He enjoys the opportunities to repay that kindness now. Joseph is the Service Manager for a Systems Integration company where he has worked for the past 26 years; prior to that he served proudly in the US Coast Guard as an Avionics Technician. Currently he serves on the Board as the Second Vice-President (Observatory Chairman). Joseph resides in Waterford.
20151207 - Jon Blum - Sky Quality Meter vs  Dark Sky Meter App
 
11:48
Jon Blum will give the short presentation, "Sky Quality Meter Device Compared to Dark Sky Meter App." He will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of measuring how dark the sky is using the stand-alone meter versus making that measurement with an app on his smart phone. Jon has been a member of WAS for 11 years. Although he has been interested in astronomy since childhood, he started seriously into the astronomy hobby when he received a telescope as a gift from his children when he retired from his career as a dermatologist. He originally came to WAS events to learn to use his telescope, then to better understand the objects seen in his telescope. But now he just comes to socialize, so he appointed himself as the welcoming committee for new members. He is a former WAS president and vice president. This is Jon's 15th WAS presentation. ________________________________ The views expressed in presentations are those of the speakers and do not necessarily represent, and should not be attributed to, the Warren Astronomical Society. ________________________________ We accept donations via PayPal to help us educate and inspire the general public. We are a 501(c)(3) tax-deductible public charity, and we would be happy to send you a donation receipt for your tax purposes.
20141006 - Jon Blum - Choosing and Using Telescope Eyepieces
 
12:57
Jon Blum will give the short presentation, “Telescope Eyepieces”. This talk is intended primarily for beginners who would like to learn how to choose additions to their eyepiece collection, but everyone who has looked through an eyepiece will find it of interest. It will include how and why to calculate eyepiece magnification, field of view, and other characteristics that will help you decide which eyepieces are worth buying. Specific eyepieces from Jon's collection will be reviewed. Jon has always been interested in astronomy, but only has had time to devote to the hobby since he retired 12 years ago. He has been a WAS member for ten years. He was a WAS vice president in 2010-2011 and president in 2012-2013. His favorite part of astronomy is chatting with other amateur astronomers. To that end, he recently appointed himself as the one-person welcoming committee for new people at WAS meetings. ________________________________ If you would like to present either a short talk (10-15 minutes) or a full-length talk (45-60 minutes) at a future meeting, please email [email protected] ________________________________ The views expressed in presentations are those of the speakers and do not necessarily represent, and should not be attributed to, the Warren Astronomical Society.
20180702 - Dr Larry Hoffman - Observing in a Light-Polluted World: Electronically Assisted Astronomy
 
58:45
There was a time, not so long ago, when night skies were dark and clear and the stars were diamonds on a sea of velvet. Sadly, those skies are lost for most of us because of ever expanding cities and light pollution. The Constellations are all but invisible and the Messier objects that used to be visible in a 3 or 4 inch telescope are nothing but a “faint fuzzy.” We could become armchair astronomers, or, if we are really serious about seeing the things that we have lost, we can travel to a dark sky spot, which is difficult or impossible for most of us. Alternately, we can purchase a large and heavy telescope, a so-called light bucket. Now, there is another alternative, Electronically Assisted Astronomy or Near Real Time Viewing. This does not mean traditional astrophotography. It does include video (analog) astronomy and near real-time (digital) viewing. As an added bonus, we have at our disposal small hand held computers that will accurately tell our telescope where to point. We have at our fingertips tools that were not available in even the best professional observatories just a few years ago. We will discuss EAA, concentrating on what I have tried and what works, what is easily available, and, look at what the future has in store for us. Lawrence “Larry” Hoffman is a retired ophthalmologist. He got his first look through a telescope 70 years ago and has been hooked on Astronomy since then. In high school and college he attended meetings of the Detroit Astronomical Society and ground his first mirror, for an eight inch Newtonian, in a basement off of Second Avenue. He remembers when you could see the Milky Way from Broadstreet and Boston. Over the years he has had a wide variety of telescopes and mounts, strongly believing that you can never have too many scopes or too many mounts. He currently belongs to two Astronomy clubs in Michigan and two in Florida. His motto is, “When you stop learning you are dead. It’s just that nobody bothered to tell you.” ________________________________ The views expressed in presentations are those of the speakers and do not necessarily represent, and should not be attributed to, the Warren Astronomical Society.
20140602 - Bob Berta - Binoculars for Astronomy
 
28:59
Bob Berta will give the short presentation, "Binoculars for Astronomy – Choosing and Using Them". Bob will discuss the basic points of binoculars, what to look for in the specs and what to avoid. He will also cover how to test binoculars for good alignment, and finally what to look for in a binocular mainly used for astronomy and what to look for if you want it to do double duty. He will end with a discussion of how to hold them or support them for ease of use and steady seeing. ________________________________ If you would like to present either a short talk (10-15 minutes) or a full-length talk (45-60 minutes) at a future meeting, please email our first VP at [email protected] ________________________________ The views expressed in presentations are those of the speakers and do not necessarily represent, and should not be attributed to, the Warren Astronomical Society.
20170911 - Jim Shedlowsky - Giant Telescopes
 
01:03:18
What is a modern Giant telescope? How and from where do they come about? What technologies make them possible? These questions, along with a brief history of notable telescopes, are discussed in this presentation by Jim Shedlowsky. Since Gallileo first turned his handmade refractor to the night sky in 1609 and began a new era in astronomical discoveries, astronomers have continually sought more “powerful” telescopes to uncover the mysteries of the heavens. For nearly three hundred years “more powerful” telescopes meant modestly larger, longer and much more refined instruments, to support the “positional astronomy” which dominated that era. Then around the turn of the 20th century with the advent of new technologies ( i.e. photography, spectroscopy, etc. ), the science of Cosmology was born. George Ellery Hale seized the moment, built the 60inch reflector at Mt Wilson, and the age of the modern mega-reflector was begun, culminating with the dedication of the 200 inch Hale telescope at Mt Palomar. This presentation will concentrate on the “post-Hale” period from 1949 until the present, and discuss the trials, tribulations, politics and personalities which had to be overcome, along with the significant technological advances, which resulted in the current and near future generation of Giant telescopes. Jim will review these huge instruments and the technologies that make them “tick”! ________________________________ The views expressed in presentations are those of the speakers and do not necessarily represent, and should not be attributed to, the Warren Astronomical Society.
20150618 Mike O'Dowd Lands on the Moon
 
21:04
Mike O'Dowd presented "Simulating the First Moon Landing". Mike will be showing a computer simulation of the first moon landing by Apollo 11, using a program called Eagle Lander 3D. From inside the Lunar Module we will fly down to the lunar surface while dodging boulders and craters. I’ll also be going over some little known facts about the Lunar Module and that first historic moon landing. Mike first joined the Warren Astronomical Society in 1987. He held officer positions of Treasurer & 2nd Vice President during the late 20th century and early 21st century. Mike’s astronomy career when he received a 60 mm refractor telescope for Christmas in 1973. He acquired his 11 inch Schmitt Cassegrain telescope in 1996. He also enjoys PC Flight Simulating and recently began flying a radio controlled Quadcopter. Graduated from Macomb Community College with an Associate’s Degree and has been working in the automotive supplier sector since 1984.
20161020 - Diane Hall - A Rose in San Jose: The Rosicrucian Planetarium
 
18:50
The Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum in San Jose, California, a building of Moorish design (honoring the important contributions of the Arab astronomers), features the fifth planetarium built in the United States. Diane will tell us about her visits there. -------------------------------------------------------------------- The views expressed in presentations are those of the speakers and do not necessarily represent, and should not be attributed to, the Warren Astronomical Society.
Fireball! Meteor on camera - November 4, 2008
 
00:38
Frank "Rocketman" Uroda reports: "At 5:15 AM a huge fireball (meteor) streaked across the northern sky. My new SkyCam caught the meteor and the smoke trail it left. This is a 3 second time lapse video that actually covers a 30 minute time frame. Each frame is a 1 minute exposure and the video is running at 10 frames per second. The smoke trail lingered in the sky for over 20 minutes! The field of view in the frame is about 90 degrees from left to right. This means that the meteor covered about 45 degrees... or a distance about 90 full moons across." Find Frank's astronomy website at: http://home.earthlink.net/~photoncollector/
20141201 Gary Ross  - In Search of Omega Centauri Part 2
 
22:12
Gary Ross gives an account of looking for Omega Centauri across the Michigan-Indiana border in a short presentation entitled "In Search of... Omega Centauri II". Gary says that he is the Lord of Kissing Rock Farm, and Observatory Chairman of the James C. Veen Observatory. He also notes that the peak of his career was being a human test subject for Salk Vaccine live trials in 1955. Everything subsequent has been down hill. (He visited the Salk Institute at La Jolla in February, but they never heard of him.)
20170501 - Dr. Dale Partin - SETI: An Update
 
01:00:53
Dr. Dale Partin has an update for us on extra-terrestrial intelligence. He may or may not show up in an alien costume. Dr. Dale Partin is an amateur astronomer and he teaches astronomy at Macomb Community College. He has a B.S. and M.S. in physics and a Ph.D. in electrical engineering. Until his partial retirement, he worked in advanced research and development in the auto industry. He has over 80 scientific publications and 38 patents, and is a fellow of the American Physical Society and a member of Sigma Xi and of the American Scientific Affiliation. ________________________________ The views expressed in presentations are those of the speakers and do not necessarily represent, and should not be attributed to, the Warren Astronomical Society.
20170921 - Sandra Macika - Meteorites and Tektites: Types and Composition, Part I: Differentiated
 
01:00:49
Says Sandra Macika, FAAC member and delegate to GLAAC, "We will discuss how to identify meteorites, and types, composition and formation of various types of differentiated meteorites with many examples to pass around." Sandra would like you to know the following about herself: - Lifetime member of the San Jose Astronomy Association (SJAA) - Current member of the Ford Amateur Astronomy Club (FAAC)- Purchased 14.5" Starmaster Telescope in Oct 1999 - Worked at Lick Observatory (Public Outreach) for 10 years from 1997 to 2006 - Worked at NASA (Meteor Shower Studies) for 7 years from 1996 to 2002 - Starry Starry Night Supervisor at the Wayne Oakland Science Olympiad since 2014 - Meteorite / Tektite collection of over 100 pieces- Public Outreach with my collection at Schools, Scouts, MSC, AATB, Astronomy Clubs, and other Public Events -------------------------------------------------------------------- If you would like to present a short talk (5-15 minutes) or a long talk (40-60 minutes) at a future meeting, please email Mark Kedzior at [email protected] -------------------------------------------------------------------- The views expressed in presentations are those of the speakers and do not necessarily represent, and should not be attributed to, the Warren Astronomical Society.
20140821 - Dr. JP Sheehan - A Propulsion System for CubeSATs
 
01:10:28
Dr. J.P. Sheehan will give the night's presentation, entitled “A Propulsion System for CubeSATs”. CubeSats are disrupting the economics of the space industry and space science. Their standard form factor, small size, and low cost opens space missions to a huge number of new participants. Deployed as secondary payloads, they are set to drift in an often sub-optimal orbit. A propulsion system with significant delta-V capability would greatly enhance CubeSat capabilities, allowing polar orbits, highly elliptical orbits, and even deep space exploration. The CubeSat Ambipolar Thruster is designed specifically to fit a CubeSat form factor and to operate at low powers while being able to provide up to 1 km/s of velocity change. This plasma propulsion engine uses a helicon plasma source and a novel permanent magnet nozzle to generate thrust. 3D printing allows for low cost manufacture of complex components and rapid iteration. Dr. J.P. Sheehan received a PhD in Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics from the University of Wisconsin - Madison in 2012. He is currently a Research Fellow and Lecturer at the University of Michigan. He has expertise in the area of plasma physics, and is working on a miniature plasma thruster for small satellites, and investigating the basic physics of plasma in converging/diverging magnetic nozzles. He is also a member of the American Physical Society, the American Vacuum Society, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The views expressed in presentations are those of the speakers and do not necessarily represent, and should not be attributed to, the Warren Astronomical Society.
20160721 - Jonathan Kade - Alternatives to the Big Bang?
 
01:04:25
Was the universe as we know it formed in a "big bang"? A settled question... or is it? The scientific community believes it is, and Jonathan Kade is convinced. As a purely lay student of the subject for many years, he's come across many alternatives to Standard Cosmology, and has tried to understand why they don't work. In "Alternatives to the Big Bang?", he will share his learning with you. In the presentation, he will give a brief overview of "the Big Bang Theory" before introducing you to a selection of its rivals, including various static and steady state universes. Special attention will be paid to models that have shown some success at predicting observable behavior and/or aren't completely dead in the academic world. He'll also introduce you to some of the fascinating personalities behind the major factions. Jonathan Kade is interested in everything. He enjoys sharing the astronomical aspect of that tendency with fellow aficionados, especially those of the Warren Astronomical Society. He thinks the scientific establishment is generally pretty excellent at what they do (though he would be more deeply convinced if Vera Rubin was given the Nobel she earned decades ago). -------------------------------------------------------------------- The views expressed in presentations are those of the speakers and do not necessarily represent, and should not be attributed to, the Warren Astronomical Society.
20150601 Joe Tocco  - The Sky Tracker Mount
 
10:51
Joe Tocco is giving the short presentation about "The Sky Tracker Mount.” For the Wide-field Astrophotographers in all of us... iOptron brings the barn-door Tracker into the 21st century! Joe tests and reports favorably on iOptron's new digital camera tracking platform, SkyTracker. Joseph has been an active member of the Warren Astronomical Society since the summer of 2011 and is also an active member of the Seven Ponds Astronomy Club. As a young teen he was also an active member of the Warren club and remembers the mentoring that he received from many past club members. He enjoys the opportunities to repay that kindness now. Joseph is the Service Manager for a Systems Integration company where he has worked for the past 26 years, prior to that he served proudly in the US Coast Guard as an Avionics Technician. Currently he serves on the Board as the Observatory Chairman. Joseph resides in Waterford.
20160606 - Jonathan Kade - Astronomical League Observing Programs
 
16:48
On June 6, 2016, in a transparent attempt to get as many of you to join the Astronomical League as possible, former WAS president and current Astronomical League Coordinator (ALCOR) Jonathan Kade presented "Badges of Honor: The Astronomical League Observing Programs". Jonathan will walk us through a sampling of the many observing programs the Astronomical League offers. Whether you have Michigan's darkest skies or observe from the low-pressure sodium vapor glow of Wayne County, the AL programs provide a great backbone to your recreational observing. They help you focus your interests, push your equipment and observing skill, and discover new things. Some programs even center around doing citizen science and outreach. And, beyond the satisfaction of a job well done, successful completion of programs earns you both a certificate of completion and a beautiful custom enameled pin. Jonathan Kade is a software developer, an astronomer, a lacking rhythm guitarist, an etymologist, an entomologist, and an irremediable generalist. In his newly free time away from the day-to-day operations of the club, he is finding a lot more time for observing. ________________________________ The views expressed in presentations are those of the speakers and do not necessarily represent, and should not be attributed to, the Warren Astronomical Society.
20171019 - Sandra Macika - Meteorites and Tektites Pt 2: Chondrites
 
56:25
Says Sandra Macika, FAAC member and delegate to GLAAC, "We will discuss how to identify meteorites, and the types, composition, and formation of various types of chondrite meteorites with many examples to pass around." Sandra would like you to know the following about herself: - Lifetime member of the San Jose Astronomy Association (SJAA) - Current member of the Ford Amateur Astronomy Club (FAAC)- Purchased 14.5" Starmaster Telescope in Oct 1999 - Worked at Lick Observatory (Public Outreach) for 10 years from 1997 to 2006 - Worked at NASA (Meteor Shower Studies) for 7 years from 1996 to 2002 - Starry Starry Night Supervisor at the Wayne Oakland Science Olympiad since 2014 - Meteorite / Tektite collection of over 100 pieces- Public Outreach with my collection at Schools, Scouts, MSC, AATB, Astronomy Clubs, and other Public Events -------------------------------------------------------------------- The views expressed in presentations are those of the speakers and do not necessarily represent, and should not be attributed to, the Warren Astronomical Society.
20140918 - Jeff MacLeod - The GAIA Spacecraft: Mapping the Milky Way
 
01:01:32
Jeff MacLeod is our speaker, giving a presentation entitled, “The GAIA Spacecraft: Mapping the Milky Way”. The GAIA spacecraft will map our Milky Way galaxy with unprecedented precision. From construction & deployment, to goals & possible discoveries, Jeff will explore just how they achieved this new level of precision in astrometry. There will also be some background into GAIA’s predecessor Hipparcos, map making, astrometry & parallax measurements. Jeff has been a WAS member for just over a year and is the unofficial cartoonist for the WASP. He has been obsessed with space his entire life, with a special place for NASA, cosmology and Richard Feynman. Career plans include planetary geologist and possible lunar resident, in his free time he is an artist, juggler, and unicycling street performer. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- If you would like to present a short talk (5-15 minutes) or a long talk (40-60 minutes) at a future meeting, please email [email protected] -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The views expressed in presentations are those of the speakers and do not necessarily represent, and should not be attributed to, the Warren Astronomical Society.
20150914 - Gary Ross - A Mid-Century Home-Made Telescope Mount
 
06:10
Gary brought in the mount that his father made to show us what for.
20180816 - Jonathan Kade - 'Oumuamua: A Strange Visitor from Beyond the Solar System
 
32:59
First VP Jonathan Kade presents "A Strange Visitor from Beyond the Solar System". This spring, a strange, cigar-shaped object arced through our solar system: the interstellar comet called 'Oumuamua. Later this spring, a W.A.S. member challenged Jonathan to commission a presentation to explain how astronomers were able to so quickly figure out where 'Oumuamua came from and where it was going. Jonathan Kade is a professional software developer; an amateur astronomer, naturalist, activist, and musician; and a dilettante in most other fields. His proudest publicly disclosable achievement this summer is, with Outreach chief Diane Hall, raising and releasing 3 monarch butterflies into the wild; at this writing, there are 3 chrysalises and 3 second instar caterpillars in enclosures in his living room. -------------------------------------------------------------------- The views expressed in presentations are those of the speakers and do not necessarily represent, and should not be attributed to, the Warren Astronomical Society.
20190107 - Kevin McLaughlin - How Satellites Work: The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory
 
01:02:48
Kevin McLaughlin will use his experience in the satellite industry to give us a case study in practical satellite design, using as an example a really important space observatory he helped create. Kevin will review NASA’s Great Observatory program, the role of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, and its major findings. He'll walk us through the major program phases of a satellite, including deciding on and implementing major mission requirements, designing and building the hardware used by the observatory to fulfill those requirements, dealing with the realities of operations in space, and more. Kevin McLaughlin was involved in the validation of the attitude control during the design phase for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, wrote a simulation used to validate all safety logic for the observatory, and was responsible for on-orbit operation of the attitude control and propulsion subsystems as a lead engineer. --- The views expressed in presentations are those of the speakers and do not necessarily represent, and should not be attributed to, the Warren Astronomical Society.
20160801 - Jon Blum - Michigan's September Star Parties and Why You Should Go
 
17:38
Jon will convince us on “Why You Should Go To Astronomy At The Beach and the Great Lakes Star Gaze.” September brings the two largest astronomy events of the year in Michigan. One is an event that we club members put on for the public at Kensington Metropark, and the other is an event that is just for members of all Michigan astronomy clubs observing under dark skies in Gladwin. Jon will discuss and explain each of those two events, so you can see why you should attend them both. Jon has been interested in astronomy since childhood and still has his first cardboard telescope. But he didn’t have time for a real telescope, and never heard of astronomy clubs, until he retired at the end of 2001. He has lived his whole life in the Detroit area, and spent his career as a dermatologist with an office in Farmington Hills. In addition to astronomy, his other hobbies are grandchildren, digital photography, and creating the largest website about Maui. He is a past vice president and past president of the Warren Astronomical Society. ________________________________ The views expressed in presentations are those of the speakers and do not necessarily represent, and should not be attributed to, the Warren Astronomical Society.
20180517 - Aisha Scott - One Giant Leap for Photography
 
46:24
Lens design is one important aspect of the technology that allows astronomers to stare at the stars. At our May Macomb meeting, Aisha Scott will give the feature presentation: “One Giant Leap for Lens Design: the History of the Zeiss Planar 50mm f0.7 lens”. The presentation will connect astronomy to the obsession and most passionate debate of photographers everywhere. The Planar 50mm lens was originally designed by Zeiss to map the lunar surface in the 1960s. The lens was made famous by Stanley Kubrick’s 1975 film, Barry Lyndon. The rumors of the greatest lens ever made resurfaced after the Planar lens recently became available for photographers and cinematographers to rent. Aisha graduated from Marygrove College with a BFA in Art. Her interest in astronomy began with astrophotography. She received her first digital camera at the age 12, to document family vacations. Though she does not currently work in the art field, she continues to maintain her passion for photography as an enthusiast. ----- The views expressed in presentations are those of the speakers and do not necessarily represent, and should not be attributed to, the Warren Astronomical Society.
WAS Picnic 2017: Jim Shedlowsky and Jon Blum perform "Shiny Hubble"
 
01:24
This may remind you of some other song...
20181203 - Jonathan Kade - Good Telescopes Under $500
 
23:07
First VP Jonathan Kade, with help from former First VP Mark Kedzior, shares a list of telescopes that will give beginners a good experience and won't completely break the budget. We'll look at notable telescopes from many prominent brands, and then talk about some options if you're willing to think outside the telescope box... Jonathan Kade's first purchase after he paid off his student loans was an Orion SkyQuest XT-8. His telescope collection's size has plateaued, at least temporarily. Mark Kedzior's association with the W.A.S. dates back to our days at Lincoln High School in Warren, where Mark now has a career center named for him! He has helped build more telescopes than many of us will ever own.
20181203 - Dr. Dale Partin - Measuring the Speed of Light
 
59:21
In the latter part of the seventeenth century, a Danish astronomer named Ole Christensen Roemer made rather precise measurements of the orbit of Jupiter’s moon Io. He found an anomaly in the period of its orbit which was caused by the finite speed of light. This allowed the first determination of the speed of light to be made. It was discovered that the speed of light is astonishingly fast, on the order of a million times faster than the speed of sound in air. My attempts to replicate these measurements and determine the speed of light over the last few years will be described. This turned out to be much more challenging than expected… Dr. Dale Partin is an amateur astronomer and he teaches astronomy at Macomb Community College. He has B.S. and M.S. degrees in physics and a Ph.D. in electrical engineering. Until his partial retirement, he worked in advanced research in the auto industry. He has over 80 scientific publications and 38 patents, and is a fellow of the American Physical Society and a member of Sigma Xi and of the American Scientific Affiliation.
20171116 - Mark Kedzior - Library Telescope Programs
 
55:41
Current First VP Mark Kedzior will discuss the origins of the Library Telescope Program founded by the New Hampshire Astronomical Society in 2008 and its purpose of this concept as to promoting outreach in astronomy in the United States. He will also discuss local efforts in Michigan to implement this program, for instance in Ann Arbor, which led to the Warren Astronomical Society partnering with the Grosse Pointe Library in establishing this telescope lending program to their patrons in June 2015. Mark will also give an update as to the success of the program, feedback from the community, and some alternative ideas in promoting astronomy outreach in this program. -------------------------------------------------------------------- The views expressed in presentations are those of the speakers and do not necessarily represent, and should not be attributed to, the Warren Astronomical Society.
20150917 - Joe Tocco - Wide Field Astrophotography
 
59:31
Second VP Joe Tocco will enlighten us about the joys of wide-field astrophotography. The first photograph of an astronomical object (the Moon) was taken in 1840, but it was not until the late 19th century that advances in technology allowed for detailed stellar photography. Many amateur astronomers think of astrophotography as an all-consuming pursuit of perfection by a small group of obsessive, neurotic, paranoid and impatient fanatics who have fallen "to the Dark Side" and that without an expensive investment in sophisticated imaging equipment the average amateur can't capture their own night-sky photos. However, this presentation will show how to capture stunning and rewarding wide-field images of the night sky with a DSLR camera and tripod, or possibly with just a simple point and shoot camera, tripod optional. Joseph has been an active member of the Warren Astronomical Society since the summer of 2011 and is also an active member of the Seven Ponds Astronomy Club. As a young teen he was also an active member of the Warren club and remembers the mentoring that he received from many past club members. He enjoys the opportunities to repay that kindness now. Joseph is the Service Manager for a Systems Integration company where he has worked for the past 26 years. Prior to that he served proudly in the US Coast Guard as an Avionics Technician. Currently he serves on the Board as the Observatory Chairman. Joseph resides in Waterford.
20150803 Cameron Hanson - Radiation in Space: Mechanisms of Damage and Protection for Astronauts
 
49:49
Radiation-induced DNA damage is one of the biggest challenges facing astronauts today. The universe is aglow with ionizing radiation, solar events, cosmic rays, and gamma ray bursts. The thin veil of our magnetic field protects from the most damaging radiation in low earth orbit. However, if we are to journey to Mars and beyond to deep space, understanding the risks, effects, and protective measures can help minimize the dangers. Damage to DNA is primarily due to ionizing radiation and while direct interaction with DNA can cause base releases and strand-breaks, radiation’s interaction with H2O and the radicals produced in the cellular environment yields the greatest threat. Various proposed methods of risk mitigation and protection will be key in securing our place as an interplanetary species.
20181206 - Jim Shedlowsky - Greatest Astronomical Hits
 
44:37
Our keynote this year is a little different than at our normal banquets: WAS member and rockabilly star (with the Skee Brothers) Jim Shedlowsky will take us on a singalong trip back through the catalog of songs he's reworked into astronomical ballads. He'll also present a quick summary of each presentation that a song was written for.
20160201 - Jonathan Kade - Missions to Venus
 
21:27
On February 1, 2016, Jonathan Kade gave the short presentation, "Missions to Venus." Everybody knows that we've sent autonomous probes to the Moon and Mars umpteen times, to Mercury a few times, to the outer planets quite a lot. But I hardly ever hear anybody talk about Venus. Maybe you know the Russians went there a few times, or remember Pioneer Venus and Magellan. But do you know there have been 21 successful missions to Venus and nearly twice that many attempts? In this short talk, we'll talk about both the successful missions and the unsuccessful ones, and speculate about why we don't pay more attention to our sister planet. Jonathan Kade is a past president of the Warren Astronomical Society and currently the webmaster. He enjoys observing with the analog unit, matching vocabularies with Gary Ross, and learning with and from the brilliant and wonderful folks of the W.A.S. In his day job, he is a software developer for Amazon.com. He also loves other sciences, music (most notably the band Shearwater), the outdoors, yoga, people, animals, the city of Detroit, and too much else to include here. He is a proud native and resident of Dearborn, Michigan. ________________________________ The views expressed in presentations are those of the speakers and do not necessarily represent, and should not be attributed to, the Warren Astronomical Society.
20170206 - Gary M Ross - The Trapezium
 
58:56
The Trapezium is commonly and understandably characterised as a multiple star, but is much more. Buried in M-42/ 43 nebulae, it is looked upon as a side attraction, but if a stand alone object in a more barren part of the sky, Theta-1 Orionis would be celebrated as a wonder. This lecture will touch upon a detailed description of its components, the relationship to the "Orion" Nebula, and observational history. From The Underground Observer, a publication of the Detroit Observational and Astrophotographic Association (DOAA), Winter 1970: "G.M. Ross, renowned playboy amateur astronomer, threw a bombshell into the last meeting of the DOAA held in November. Appearing in a rough sackcloth, Mr. Ross announced to the astonished assemblage that he was giving up worldly pleasures and pursuits and was entering a seminary to dedicate his life to higher ideals. Mr. Ross's change is not felt to be a loss to amateur astronomy." ________________________________ The views expressed in presentations are those of the speakers and do not necessarily represent, and should not be attributed to, the Warren Astronomical Society.
20180910 - Jim Shedlowsky - The LSST: Wider, Faster, Deeper
 
43:05
Jim Shedlowsky will tell us about the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (aka LSST), one of the most exciting of the next generation of Giant Telescopes. It will be the world's most sophisticated survey telescope, and will map the entire southern hemisphere in a manner much more detailed than ever before, and in a new dimension - time! - for the first time ever. You may rightly ask, ”what is a survey telescope ?”, and “why should I be interested ?” Jim will attempt to answer these questions, and to describe an instrument, facility, and program which may revolutionize our understanding of our solar system, our galaxy, and indeed, our entire universe - and how you will be invited to participate! This presentation will explain what it is, how it will operate, and why it is the number one priority for the National Science Foundation for ground based astronomy for this decade. Jim Shedlowsky, long time member, former WAS treasurer, and rockabilly legend, worked for 36 years as a Vehicle Development Engineer/Manager, specializing in Acoustics and Noise & Vibration, retiring in 1999. He graduated from the University of Michigan in 1960 with a degree in Engineering Physics and spent two years as an officer in the U.S. Army in Germany. In his spare time, he wrote and recorded music for Epic and Roulette Records as one of the “Skee Brothers”, who appeared on Dick Clark’s “Bandstand” in 1958. In 2015, they released their latest album, 'That's All She Wrote... After 57 Years". Jim’s astronomical interests include observation and outreach (he owns several telescopes), but in recent years his passion for astronomical history and technology has become a major factor. He is a member of the McMath-Hulbert Astronomical Society, and has visited a number of major observatories. He thoroughly enjoys the WAS Discussion Group. He and his wife winter in Mesa, Arizona ( a great place for observing ), and he participates in activities of the East Valley Astronomy Club. He took part in the “All Arizona Messier Marathon” in March of 2009, earning a certificate for observing 104 Messier Objects in one night. 2013 rendering of the LSST courtesy Todd Mason, Mason Productions Inc. / LSST Corporation. ________________________________ The views expressed in presentations are those of the speakers and do not necessarily represent, and should not be attributed to, the Warren Astronomical Society.
20141016 - Joe Tocco - Stargate Observatory: The Rebirth
 
55:33
At our Macomb meeting on October 16th, Joseph Tocco will be our speaker. He will give a presentation entitled, “The New Stargate Observatory”. With generous donations from the Kalinowski family and Andy Khula, the Warren Astronomical Society is excited to be in the final stages of major upgrades to the Stargate Observatory. Besides some operational information on the D&G Refractor and the Astrophysics 1200 GTO Computerized German Equatorial Mount, learn a little more about the two men that made the new telescope and mount a reality. Joseph has been an active member of the Warren Astronomical Society since the summer of 2011 and is also an active member of the Seven Ponds Astronomy Club. As a young teen he was also an active member of the Warren club and remembers the mentoring that he received from many past club members. He enjoys the opportunities to repay that kindness now. Joseph is the Service Manager for a Systems Integration company where he has worked for the past 26 years, prior to that he served proudly in the US Coast Guard as an Avionics Technician. Currently he serves on the Board as the Observatory Chairman. Joseph resides in Waterford.
20170817 - Bob Trembley - The Sun
 
01:02:40
Bob Trembley will be presenting a slightly expanded version of his lecture about the Sun, which he has given frequently at Stargate, and at schools. Just the thing for our final meeting before solar eclipse on the 21st! Bob has been observing the Sun since 2000, when his got his 40mm Coronado PST solar telescope, and 8 inch Orion Dobsonian with a solar filter. His first astrophoto was of the partial solar eclipse of Christmas 2000, taken with a cheap digital camera held up to his Dob. Now, he holds his smartphone (with a much better camera) up to the telescope at Stargate Observatory. Bob was taking his telescopes to his wife’s school before he joined the W.A.S., now he is this year’s W.A.S. outreach officer, and schedules volunte schools and lecture about space science. -------------------------------------------------------------------- The views expressed in presentations are those of the speakers and do not necessarily represent, and should not be attributed to, the Warren Astronomical Society.
20180621   Sandra Macika   Meteorites Part 3: Primitive Achondrites
 
01:03:12
Meteorite aficionado Sandra Macika brings us part three in her series of presentations about these exciting visitors from the skies. She’ll go over a basic introduction to meteorites and what a meteorite is, then review the types of Meteorites: chondrites vs. achondrites and what “primitive” means. Sandra will then explain and provide examples of the four main types of primitive achondritic meteorites: Winonaites and IABs, Ureilites, and Brachinites. She’ll have samples from her collection to pass around. Sandra worked with NASA doing meteor studies for 7 years, from 1996 to 2002. She worked at Lick Observatory public outreach for 10 years, from 1997 to 2006. She has been the Supervisor of Wayne / Oakland Science Olympiad (WOSO) Astronomy since 2014. She is the Vice President of the Great Lakes Association of Astronomy Clubs (GLAAC) and has served on the Astronomy at the Beach (AATB) planning committee since 2014. She is a certified Merit Badge Counselor for the Boy Scouts Astronomy badge. She has been a member of FAAC since 2008, WAS since 2017, FCS since 2017, and is a lifetime member of SJAA. She has been the proud owner of a 14.5” Starmaster telescope since 1999. -------------------------------------------------------------------- The views expressed in presentations are those of the speakers and do not necessarily represent, and should not be attributed to, the Warren Astronomical Society.
Solar Eclipse in China - August 1, 2008 - High Magnification
 
09:16
A high-magnification video account of this year's solar eclipse taken by Ken Bertin of the Warren Astronomical Society. Check out the wide angle version too!
20180108 -  Dr Jerry Dunifer -  Pulsar 1913+16 and the Nobel Prize
 
15:49
The 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics, announced October 3, 2017, was awarded to Rainer Weiss, Barry Barish, and Kip Thorne for their direct detection of gravitational waves using LIGO. But that wasn't the first Nobel awarded for detection of gravitational waves! There was another Nobel Prize, awarded 24 years earlier, for an indirect detection of gravitational waves. This is the story of that discovery. The earlier Nobel Prize was given to Joseph Taylor and Russell Hulse, both of Princeton University, for their detection of the first binary-pulsar system and their measurements showing the system was losing energy at exactly the same rate expected for the generation of gravitational waves as predicted by Albert Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity. The binary pulsar, now known as Pulsar 1913+16, had an orbital period that was decreasing at the rate of 75 microseconds/year, which agreed within 0.5% of the value calculated from the General Theory of Relativity. Jerry Dunifer is a Professor Emeritus in the Physics and Astronomy Department at Wayne State University. He enjoys observing solar eclipses, visiting astronomical observatories around the world, sailing, flying airplanes, and traveling to exotic locations such as the North and South Poles. At Wayne State, Jerry's research involved Millimeter-Wave Transmission Spectroscopy in high-purity metals subjected to intense magnetic fields. He also wrote proposals for funding which resulted in the Department's current Planetarium and Observation Domes on the roof of the Physics Building. ________________________________ The views expressed in presentations are those of the speakers and do not necessarily represent, and should not be attributed to, the Warren Astronomical Society.
20100913 - The Great Debate: Manned vs. Unmanned Spaceflight
 
01:36:33
Four members of our club will hold a panel discussion and debate about manned versus unmanned space exploration. Jim Shedlowsky and Jerry Kuchera will speak for manned exploration. Ken Bertin and Dave Bailey will speak for unmanned exploration. Jon Blum will moderate, and will try to prevent physical confrontations. This promises to be a spirited, fun, exciting, and educational presentation. The views expressed in presentations are those of the speakers and do not necessarily represent, and should not be attributed to, the Warren Astronomical Society.
20180816 - Dr Dale Partin - A Lunar Synestia
 
34:15
Dr. Dale Partin presents "A Lunar Synestia". It has been thought that the Moon formed as a result of a giant impact of a Mars-sized object (Theia) with the proto-Earth. This produced a ring of material orbiting Earth that coalesced into the Moon. This has been the consensus theory of the formation of the Moon for a few decades. However, more detailed studies of this collision model with increasingly sophisticated computer programs have raised questions. These studies indicate that the impactor had to have had a narrow range of mass, impact angle and speed to produce a moon with the required properties. This very narrow range of impact parameters makes it less likely that the Moon formed this way. An additional problem has arisen from ongoing studies of lunar material brought back by the Apollo astronauts. Chemical (isotope) studies of lunar material seem to agree too closely with those of the Earth! These issues have opened the door to new theories of the formation of the Moon. The dominant one is a variation of the giant impact theory that involves the formation of a synestia that ultimately produced the Moon. Dale Partin has a Ph.D. from Carnegie-Mellon University. Until his partial retirement, he worked in advanced research in the auto industry. He has over 80 scientific publications and 38 patents, and is a fellow of the American Physical Society and a member of Sigma Xi, the American Scientific Affiliation and the Warren Astronomical Society in Michigan. He is an amateur astronomer and teaches astronomy at Macomb Community College in Michigan. -------------------------------------------------------------------- The views expressed in presentations are those of the speakers and do not necessarily represent, and should not be attributed to, the Warren Astronomical Society.
Comet Lulin Flyby
 
00:36
Dave D'Onofrio, one of the WAS's star astrophotographers, contributes these shots of Comet Lulin. This comet was really moving when it passed by the Earth! He took the photos, one minute each, on Feb 28, 2009 from Dearborn Heights using his 12" LX200 at f6.3 and a ST2000 camera. They're played back first fast, then slower. Consider this a teaser for a longer video that shows the comet moving even farther - it will be up soon. (Music: A Comet Appears by the Shins)
20170403 - Dr. Dale Partin - Colonizing Mars
 
01:03:30
Colonizing Mars has for a long time been the stuff of science fiction. We are on the threshold of this becoming reality. Elon Musk founded SpaceX to get people to Mars. The Europeans think we should colonize the Moon first to gain experience. There are many challenges to be dealt with to live on Mars, such as living in reduced gravity, cosmic rays, growing food on Mars, etc. These and related issues will be discussed. Let’s go to Mars! Dale Partin is an amateur astronomer and he teaches astronomy at Macomb Community College. He has a B.S. and M.S. in physics and a Ph.D. in electrical engineering. Until his partial retirement, he worked in advanced research and development in the auto industry. He has over 80 scientific publications and 38 patents, and is a fellow of the American Physical Society and a member of Sigma Xi and of the American Scientific Affiliation. David Bailey says that he was in astronomy before he was born, as his parents met as graduate students at the Yerkes Observatory in the 1930s. He also studied under Carl Sagan and other leading astronomers at Harvard. He is presently writing a science-fiction novel. After each WAS Cranbrook meeting, some club members get together to continue to the discussion in a more free-form way at the Redcoat Tavern on Woodward just north of 13 Mile. This is a opportunity to further discuss astronomy in an informal environment for about an hour or so. All members and guests are invited to join us there. We generally leave from the meeting around 10:00 PM and meet at the restaurant a few minutes later. You can order food from the menu if you like, but not everyone does. Most leave the restaurant around 11:30 PM. ________________________________ The views expressed in presentations are those of the speakers and do not necessarily represent, and should not be attributed to, the Warren Astronomical Society.
20170420 - Mark Kedzior - Adventures in Amateur Telescope Making
 
42:39
Our Program Chair Mark Kedzior takes a turn at the podium with "Adventures in Amateur Telescope Making: Upgrading a 10.1" F/4.5 Coulter Odyssey Reflector"! "After acquiring a 1987 10.1" F/4.5 Coulter Odyssey Dobsonian Reflector from a local garage sale in 2015, I will give a brief background on the Coulter Optical Company, assess the scope as purchased, then discuss modifications from previous telescope projects that will be applied to make this telescope more user friendly." Says Mark, "I purchased my first telescope in 1964 from money earned delivering newspapers - a 1964 Sears 60MM refractor (which I still own). I enjoyed reading astronomy books that were available at my local library. While attending Warren Lincoln High School in 1967, I joined the Warren Astronomical Society, who held their regularly scheduled meetings there and observed through the club's 12.5" reflector in the observatory on the roof. Under the guidance of club founder Gerry Alyea, I ground and polished an 8" f/4.5 mirror, and acquired some of the components to make my "dreamscope". After graduation in 1970, thirty years passed until April 2000, when I rejoined the WAS, finished my "dreamscope", and have enjoyed amateur telescope making and sharing the views with our public at outreach events." Mark is one of our "keepers of the flame," in other words! -------------------------------------------------------------------- The views expressed in presentations are those of the speakers and do not necessarily represent, and should not be attributed to, the Warren Astronomical Society.
20181001 - Jerry Dunifer - Touring Chile with Sky and Telescope Magazine
 
55:40
Main Talk: "A Tour of Chile with Sky & Telescope Magazine" by Jerry Dunifer Jerry will talk about his experiences on a tour of Chile in March 2017 to visit several major astronomical observatories. The tour was arranged by Sky & Telescope magazine, and the group leader was Kelly Beatty, one of the Senior Editors of the publication. Sites visited included Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, La Silla Observatory, Gemini South Observatory, and the ALMA Observatory. ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) is a linked array of dozens of individual telescopes which constitutes the largest, the most-expensive, and the most-sensitive radio telescope in the World. The talk will also describe some side trips to visit some unique sites of interest in Chile including the highest and largest geyser field in the Southern Hemisphere and an extensive stone and sand formation known as the Valley of the Moon. Jerry Dunifer is a Professor Emeritus at Wayne State University. He was a member of the faculty in the Department of Physics & Astronomy for 35 years before retirement. While active in the Department he served as a Professor and Associate Chair of the Department for several years. His research program there involved the study of the electrical and magnetic properties of high-purity metals at a temperature of 1 Kelvin. He also played an active role in the astronomy programs of the Department, including the WSU Planetarium and telescopic observing facilities. Since retirement, one of Jerry’s hobbies has been visiting a number of the major and historic astronomy observatories around the World. He has visited dozens of different sites and has traveled as far as the geographic South Pole and the geographic North Pole. And many places in-between. ________________________________ The views expressed in presentations are those of the speakers and do not necessarily represent, and should not be attributed to, the Warren Astronomical Society.
20150504 - Professor Ed Cackett - Neutron Stars: Humanity in a Sugar Cube
 
57:29
Professor Edward Cackett from the Physics and Astronomy Department at Wayne State University will give the main presentation, entitled, "Neutron Stars: Humanity in a Sugar Cube". Professor Cackett says: "Neutron stars are fascinating objects. They are formed in a supernova explosion at the end of a star's life: what is left after the explosion is a tiny, incredibly dense star. "They have a mass a little more than that of our Sun, yet are crammed into a sphere only about 20-30 km across. This makes the very centers of neutron stars more dense than atomic nuclei - the equivalent of cramming the world's entire human population into a sugar cube! "In this talk, I will discuss how we use neutron stars to try and understand what happens to matter under such extreme conditions." ________________________________ The views expressed in presentations are those of the speakers and do not necessarily represent, and should not be attributed to, the Warren Astronomical Society.
20160912 - Jim Shedlowsky - Arizona: A Great State for Astronomy
 
59:27
This presentation will discuss Jim’s experiences and discoveries regarding Astronomy in the state of Arizona, which he has been associated with for nearly 50 years. He will review the basic climatic, topographical, demographic and economic characteristics that rank this state as the foremost in the U.S. in Astronomy. he will then describe the bustling Professional Astronomy scene, with the many major academic and research programs at its state universities with connections to NASA, the National Science Foundation, and other national and international organizations. Many of these programs are carried out in the extensive network of world class observatories, which will also be reviewed. Next he will review the very active Amateur Astronomy community and some of its activities,…including the unique “All Arizona Messier Marathon”. The final part of his presentation will cover a tour of the “Carris Mirror Lab”, in Tucson, where the largest telescope mirrors in the world are built, and which is currently intimately involved with the production of the “Giant Magellan Telescope”, with its seven, 27.5 foot diameter mirrors. He will close with a review of his reasons to consider Arizona as a “Astronomy Destination”, followed by his customary musical finale. Jim Shedlowsky, long time member and former WAS treasurer, …and rockabilly legend, worked for 36 years as a Vehicle Development Engineer/Manager, specializing in Acoustics and Noise& Vibration, retiring in 1999. He graduated from the University of Michigan in 1960 with a degree in Engineering Physics and spent two years as an officer in the U.S. Army in Germany. In his spare time, he wrote and recorded music for Epic and Roulette Records, as one of the “Skee Brothers” (they were on Dick Clark’s “Bandstand” in 1958 ). Jim’s astronomical interests include observation and outreach (he owns several telescopes), but in recent years his passion for astronomical history and technology has become a major factor. He is a member of the McMath-Hulbert Astronomical Society, and has visited a number of major observatories. He thoroughly enjoys the WAS Discussion Group. He and his wife winter in Mesa, Arizona ( a great place for observing ), and he participates in activities of the East Valley Astronomy Club. He took part in the “All Arizona Messier Marathon” in March of 2009, earning a certificate for observing 104 Messier Objects in one night.
20180806 - Ken Bertin - Jan Oort and Gerard Kuiper
 
49:42
Main Talk: "Jan Oort and Gerard Kuiper: the solar system surrounded by a belt and a cloud", by Kuiper's astronomy student Ken Bertin. Ken will show us the redefiners of the solar system up close and personal. Ken Bertin is a hobbyist astronomer for over 65 years, Past President and VEEP of WAS, Solar System Ambassador, 10 Total Solar Eclipses, 4 Annular eclipses, 6 Transits of Mercury, 2 transits of Venus. 15 Lunar eclipses. Written over 50 long presentations, over 400 short presentations.
20180920 - Jake Stollman -  Across the Sea of Space: Interstellar Travel
 
58:49
Jake Stollman will give our main presentation, "Across the Sea of Space: Interstellar Travel". The cosmos, as far as we know, contains in excess of a billion trillion stars. Our ancestors longed to soar into the sky to meet them. However, in the nascent age in which humans are exploring space, interstellar travel is gradually becoming a very real possibility. But how shall we accomplish this herculean task? By what methods can we hope to venture to the stars? Beginning with a brief discussion of Polynesian voyagers, Jake will explore the oddities of close-to-lightspeed-travel, then compile a list of various methods of interstellar propulsion, from nuclear bombs to solar sails to black holes, ending with a discussion of interstellar disposition. Integrated into the presentation are nods to various sci-fi universes and technologies, such as Star Trek, Star Wars, and 2001: A Space Odyssey, among many others. Jake Stollman is a professional 11th grader at Groves High School. For the ten minutes a week that he isn’t studying, practicing Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, and volunteering at the Cranbrook Observatory, he likes to play with his little sister and read Carl Sagan. This summer, he went to Astronomy Camp in Arizona where he operated the 61” Kuiper telescope and slept in the lobby of the Large Binocular Telescope. He owns far too many space-related clothing items for his own good.
20160519 - John Dumar and his physics class - Kepler’s Third Law & the Galilean Moons of Jupiter
 
56:54
On May 19, 2016, John Dumar and his students presented John Dumar is a Physics teacher at Lutheran High School North and has been an instructor there since 1982 in Calculus and Physics. For an AP project he chose to verify Kepler’s third law using the moons of Jupiter. About the presentation, John says, “The class took turns in obtaining data by imaging Jupiter and its moons and plotting the orbits over two months time. It was a great project. The students gained a little more insight in how curve-fitting works and how to correct for the changing Earth-Jupiter distance over time”.
20140505 - Ken Bertin - Charles Messier
 
01:00:46
Ken Bertin gave the main presentation, on Charles Messier. French astronomer Charles Messier (1730 – 1817) was basically a comet chaser. In his search for comets he discovered that there were many objects in space which could be mistaken for comets. This caused him to make as part of his lifelong work a catalog of deep sky objects including clusters, nebulae and galaxies. He wanted to make sure that future observers would no longer be fooled by these objects. Starting in 1758, he developed his famous catalog and for the rest of his life added to it. This presentation will highlight his life and particularly the development of his catalog. Ken has been a member of the Warren Astronomical Society since the late 70s. He has held the office of VP and President. During his term as vice president, he developed the speaker forum which we use presently. During his administration as president he expanded the board to seven members from its original five, adding Outreach Director and Publications Director. Ken also added the “In the News” segment to our meetings which keeps the membership updated on new developments in the field of astronomy. Ken has observed 10 total solar eclipses, four annular eclipses and numerous lunar eclipses. Once a year, he develops a presentation on an historical astronomer and to date there have been a total of 15 such presentations. In 2001, he was awarded the John Searles Award and last year was presented with a lifetime membership. He has been studying astronomy for over 60 years. He considers it a passion, not a hobby. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The views expressed in presentations are those of the speakers and do not necessarily represent, and should not be attributed to, the Warren Astronomical Society.